( The Desire-tree Grove of Godruma )
Srila Bhaktivinode Thakur
Sri Sri Namahatta (i.e., the market place of the holy name) located at Sri Sri Navadvipa-dhama (whenever and where-ever a part of the dhama is manifested)
nama cintamanih krsnas caitanya rasa vigrahah
(Bhaktivinode Thakur begins by describing the different principal characters and materials appearing in the market)
Lekhak or Ganak (record-keeper and accountant)
Postribarga (nourishing parties)
Mudra Pariksak or Poddar (currency examiner)
Dalal or Yojak (sales agent or broker)
Parimata or Koyal (one who weighs out the goods)
Bahak (ordinary peon or bearer)
Sakatik Bahak (empowered bearer)
Kreta or Khariddar (purchaser or customer)
Panya dravya (materials to be purchased)
2. The Holy Name related to the Lord's form
3. The Holy Name related to the Lord's Qualities
4. The Holy Name related to the Lord's pastimes
5. The Holy Name related to rasa with the Lord
6. The Holy Name imbued with the full potency of all transcendental emotions in pure devotion.
The Holy Name related to the Lord's qualities is compared to brown sugar;
The Holy Name related to the Lord's pastimes is compared to white sugar;
The Holy Name's ecstatic mellow is compared to sugar candy;
And the Holy Name of the Lord imbued with full potency of all transcendental ecstatic devotional emotions is compared to pure refined sugar candy).
Description of the Transcendental Currency
2. Nistha (steady devotion), compared to two annas or 1/8 silver coin, by which the Name related to the Lord's form can be purchased.
3. Ruci (taste for the Name), compared to four annas or 1/4 silver coin, by which the Name related with the Lord's forms and qualities can be purchased.
4. Asakti (attachment), compared to 1/2 silver coin, by which the Name related to the Lord's form, qualities and pastimes can be purchased.
5. Bhava or Rati (preliminary ecstatic love of God), compared to one whole silver coin, by which the Name related to transcendental emotion can be purchased (rasita nama).
6. Prema (pure love of God), compared to a golden coin, by which the Name of the Lord imbued with all transcendental potency of the Lord's ecstatic devotion can be purchased.
The Three Kinds of Branches of the Greater Market place of the Holy Name.
2. Bipani or Dokan (store or shop): a place where a single shop-keeper or business man sits and places wares out for sale is called a store. There are two kinds of stores: where the store keeper takes the goods on credit from the chief trader and takes his profit after selling and paying back the amount owed; where the store keeper purchases the goods with his own capital and takes his profit directly.
Yojaka or Dalal (sales agent or broker): Those who bring customers to the trader and show customers the goods is called a sales agent or broker.
Some details on the Nama Hatta:
2. Under the control of the above markets, Sri Virabhadra Prabhu (son of Nityananda), Sri Acyutananda with his brother, Srinivasa Acarya Prabhu, and Sri Ramachandra Thakura Prabhu, have set up various markets.
4. Taking the goods from the markets, bazaars and shops, the salesman put the market on their heads and sell their wares from village to village.
In this way markets, bazaars, shops and salesmen will operate everywhere, at all times. Whenever and wherever a pure devotee accepts birth he takes up and continues the pastimes of this marketing of the Holy Name.
adyapiha sei lila kare gauraraya
kona kona bhagyavan dekhibare paya
The employees for posts mentioned below will be appointed, in accordance with the order of Sri Nityananda Prabhu:
2. Jharudara: He will keep the market clean. He helps the other employees and workers at their meetings during discussion, and in the performance of their responsibilities.
3. Saharatdara (market reporter): informs everyone of all relevant information and current news in regard to the market's affairs.
4. Dandidara (scale operator): takes the goods out from the shop, weighs them and gives them to the customer.
5. Cabidara (keeper of the keys): keeps all the keys of all store-rooms in the market under his care. He opens the sale with his keys, and at the end of the day he closes up the sales with his keys.
6. Mute (cooli): takes the goods with great effort and lifts them on to the customer's vehicle. There are many such bearers in the market.
7. Caukidara (watchman): a security officer, keeps watch over the market and catches thieves and other anti-social elements.
8. Moharara (book-keeper): writes down the expenditure and sales of all commodities.
In this way Bhaktivinode describes 20 employees. The rest are as follows:
9. Darga (inspector)
10. Peyada (peon)
12. Ghatiyala (protector of ghats)
13. Dokanadara (store-keeper)
14. Pasari (travelling salesman)
15. Paikera (wholesaler)
16. Patani (ferryman)
17. Pramanika (barber)
18. Dhopa (washerman)
19. Dalala (broker)
20. Darji (tailor)
For the above twenty posts there is a qualification and disqualification.
Qualification : whether brahmin, ksatriya, vaisya, sudra or lower, or whether sannyasi, brahmacari, grhastha, or vanaprastha, if one has pure devotion, he can become an employee of the Nama Hatta, and take up any of the posts.
(Eradication of all material desire, freedom from jnana and karma, and favorable service to Krsna, comprises pure devotion. According to the devotion in ones heart one has qualification, and according to the devotion there will be freedom from disqualifications).
1. Those persons materially engrossed, lazy, selfish, irreligious, devoid of enthusiasm, atheistic, desirous of obtaining mukti, eager to do material welfare work, tending to dry mental speculation, argumentative, ambitious for material prestige, controlled by lamentation, illusion, anger, greed, intoxication; those who are cheaters, liars, enemies of religion, illusioned by material learning and material culture are disqualified frombecoming employees of the Nama Hatta.
(A man's present, not previous character, is to be considered. To whatever extent a person can destroy his disqualifications, he obtains shelter of pure devotional service, and receives qualification).
2. For a grhastha or vanaprasta to go to prostitues, women other than one's wedded wife or to engage in un-restricted sex-life with ones own wife, is forbidden. Brah macaris and sannyasis are absolutely restricted from association with any woman. If any man is guilty of the offenses then he is disqualified from becoming an employee of the Nama Hatta.
(Renounced Vaisnavas of the babaji asrama are within the category of sannyasis. Those married but pure in devotion are accepted first as Vaisnavas, then as grhasthas.)
3. The person who calls himself a giver of the Name and requests some kind of material benefit from the recipient is disqualified.
(Givers of the Name freed from false ego may perform their respective duties according to the varnasrama system to maintain themselves and their family, and do not lose their qualification. The guru who gives a mantra to his disciple and accepts a voluntary offering from him for the benefit of the disciple's spiritual life is not disqualified).
4. Women who are pure devotees can become travelling women salesmen for distributing the Holy Name amongst other women, but they cannot give the name to men. According to time, place, and circumstances, however, and with great care, a cautious and mature woman can distribute the name to men. Apart from elderly women or very young girls, men preachers should avoid discussions with other women.
1. As far as possible food in the mode of goodness for maintenance of health is to be taken. Causing pain to another person's body for maintaining ones own body is not proper. One should always maintain this vision. To protect one's body, there is no restriction from taking medicine and treatment.
2. Preachers should maintain themselves through honest means. Those house holders who are capable of working have no right to beg from their material subsistence, but brahmacari and sannyasis should beg to maintain their body and should not take up any other means as an alternative wherever the preacher goes in the course of his activities, he should always be alert as to how to increase the preaching of the Holy Name at that particular place.
3. Whatever asrama under the varnasrama system one is in, a person should follow its particular rules. Considering the place, time and person, behaviour without undue pompousness which keeps one healthy is very good. One may use vehicles, staff, umbrella, etc., as long as they are helpful and useful. When possible, they should be given up.
4. One should follow the rules of cleanliness and sanitation in the toilet which are practicable and healthy, and this will not obstruct ones qualification to distribute on behalf of the Nama Hatta. However, one should be very careful that in this bathroom behaviour that no foul play takes place. That is an obstruction to pure devotion.
5. Vaisnavas naturally enjoy wearing the dress and ornaments of a Vaisnava. His favourite decoration is double or triple stranded tulasi neck beads and twelve marks of tilak (urddhva pundra), with a space between two vertical lines.
6. Each Nama Hatta employee should practice chanting the Holy Name as much as he can and have spontaneous affection for it. One should introduce himself as the most humble servant of their Lordships Sri Sri Gauranga, Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara, Srivasa. He should try to decorate himself with meekness, mercy, tolerance, pridelessness, and respect for all living entities. The preaching of the Name shall be performed with Khol and kartal, accompanied by favourable
discourses and public lectures. At the time of chanting, one may dance in ecstasy. The singing of the Glories of the Holy Name and dancing in ecstasy should correspond to the devotee's spontaneous emotion, and not just according to the tempo, beat and tune, One should avoid excessive pre-occupation with musical tune and beat. The music and tune should have an effect on the hearts of the listeners similar to the action of borax in the melting of gold. It is good to express ones feelings for the Lord through song and dance according to ones natural rising of transcendental emotions. The behaviour of irreligious people in displaying these emotions is not required. It should be avoided.
7. Employees of the Nama Hatta should carry on the preaching in the mood of pure devotion. One should never preach the paths of jnana and karma, dry renunciation, etc. Offering all respects to others one should in a mood of transcendental mercy request everyone humbly to take up the chanting of the Name. Apart from the above employees, there are other pious aspirants, such as bhats, fakirs, bauls and others who are seen in the market place. These people have the right to perform their own fruitive activities, and benefit by the association of the Nama Hatta. However Nityananda Prabhu is not responsible for whatever they lack in the pure standard.
Sri Sri Nama Hatta Parimarjak (sweeper)
the fallen, worthless servant,
Sri Kedarnath Bhaktivinod
Surabhi Kunj, Godruma Dvipa, Sri Navadvipa Dhama
Why is the sweeper of the Nama Hatta the signatory of the Godruma
As the sweeper daily cleans the market, he finds scattered letters here and there. Whatever he finds written in those letters he gives to the saharat dara to broadcast. Because the information comes from the sweeper, the saharat dara signs the sweeper's name at the time of publishing. The origin of all these bits of information is known by the chief trader there, Sri Nityananda Prabhu.
All the rules, regulations, and happenings of the Sri Sri Nama Hatta and all the news of the market that the public should know will be published from this Godruma Kalpatavi newsletter. This newsletter has no specific time of publishing, sometimes every month, sometimes every two months, sometimes twice a month. The paper has no price. All the travelling salesmen, store-keepers, and other employees of the market shall receive one copy free. Those who start saving from the first issue and bind them together will benefit greatly in the end.
O great souls who are the travelling salesmen and store-keepers of our market of the Name, we humbly request you to send in the name, village, address and district in clear writing of any pure Vaisnava whom you may know. In this way we can request them to allow us to print their name as a travelling salesman in our Sri Nama Hatta newspaper.
Prapannasrama and sraddha kutir: The shop-keepers for the Holy Name should establish in the village where he lives a store for the Holy Name, in a kuti, hut, shelter or room. That kuti will be known as a prapannasrama. Faithful devotees of the Name will gather from near and far to taste the nectar of the Name and to preach the glories of the Name. The Vaisnavas will recognize and respect the store-keeper as their spiritual brother, but the saintly people connected with the asrama should not think that they are obligated to feed him. One sadhu is not eager to take assistance from another for mitigating his requirements. However, according to one's capability he may make any offering to his brother that he is able. The store-keeper will not take any offence if a devotee brings his own food and stays for the night at the asrama. If in serving ones brother one gives his possessions as offering he should not feel any pride thinking he is a giver.
Each prapannasrama will have the name of the village or area name attached to the name of the prapannasrama., e.g., Amala Jora Prapannasrama, Bag Bazar Prapannasrama, etc.
Wherever a travelling salesman stays is called a sraddha kutir., e.g., Phula Kusum Sraddha kutir, Nakhuria Sraddha Kutir, etc.. There is no need for a separate house or separate building to be constructed. Whenever a worker connected with the Nama Hatta visits a village where a travelling salesman is situated he should first visit the sraddha kutir and meet with the salesman. Nama Hatta workers should meet their expenses by personal funds, though the travelling salesman has feelings of brotherly affection for all. If a travelling salesman wants to take a brother worker as a guest in his home, whatever is pleasing for both should be settled on, as the occasion is a mutual exchange of happiness.
The Christian missionaries who are coming from abroad for the purpose of carrying out religious preaching are paid a salary in return for their work. Therefore their activities are not selfless and there is no real auspicious benefit achieved for the world by their activity. Our Lord Sri Nityananda Prabhu's Nama Hatta is not of that nature. Our preachers of the Holy Name carry the manner of the Lord from village to village in a selfless, dedicated manner, preaching and fulfilling the order of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This type of preaching of eternal religious principles will spread in a short time, not only the length and breadth of India but throughout the whole world. The Holy sound of Sri Caitanya's mrdanga will be heard and everyone, whether brahman or mleccha, will attain pure devotion to the lotus feet of Sri Hari.
A DESCRIPTION OF PREACHING ACTIVITIES
13th Paus, Caitanyabda 405 (Bengali year). Sri Nama Hatta's work begins. Some of the Nama Hatta workers gather together at Calcutta's Kumartuli Sri Gaura-Gopinatha Kunj, Bidan street, in the house of Sriyuta Rai Kanailal Dey Bahadur, and at the Rambagan Bhaktibhavan for a large festival. At amaljoda village in Burdwan district Sri Bipinbihari Bhaktiratna, (store- keeper) has established one prapannasrama and in the neighbouring village area is preaching the glories of the Holy Name.
What is the exact nature of their duties?
The post of barber, washer and tailor are most elevated. Except for highly qualified persons, no one can accept these three positions. That person who can bring a lusty, ill-behaved, and dirty person with messy and unkempt hair to the position of a clean and pure Vaisnava is known as the Nama Hatta's barber. A person who can raise someone who, having gone astray, has become contaminated and whose fallen character can be compared to clothes stained with filth and stool, one who can clean and reinstate such a person, is called the Nama Hatta washerman. karma, Jnana, yoga, and various kinds of Vedic ritualistic activities are compared to separate pieces of cloth, which an expert tailor can join together with the thread of pure devotional truth and establishes activities based upon perfect and pure devotional principles. This is the activity of a Nama Hatta tailor.
Panchayat: Any ten or more employees of the Nama Hatta who together come to Godruma Ksetra for the purpose of establishing themselves deeply in the activities of spreading the Nama Hatta, shall then become Sri Sri Hatta's panchayat, or the main merchant's representatives.
(Here Bhaktivinoda Thakura mentions more names: 6 store-keepers, 4 brokers, and 53 travelling salesmen.)
The Sri Sri Nama Hatta root is established at Sri Sri Nabadwip Dhama, at Sri Surabhikunj, Sri Godrum Ksetra, and its branches and sub-branches are spread throughout India. The employees are from time to time travelling from the main market to different places to see how the work of the Nama hatta is progressing. What the inspectors have seen up till now is herewith revealed.
21st of Bhadra, 406 Caitanyabda, Sunday, the Nama Hatta's sweeper, the market reporter and another two Nama Hatta workers visited the Sri Rampurnaga Nama Hatta in the district of Hoogly. There, at a new Mahaprabhu mandir, travelling salesman Sriyuta Krisnhakisora Goswami had gathered an assembly of devoted Brahmins and Vaisnavas. After a brief discussion on bhakti and varnasrama the travelling salesman Sriyuta Kalidasa Saha together with some devotees sang in a sweet voice Lord Caitanya's Siksastaka published in the fourth guti of the Bhaktisiddhanta Mala.
The Nama Hatta's employees present at that place experienced extreme satis faction to see the wonderful devotion for Sri Caitanya of the assembled brahmanas.
5th Aswin Caitanyabda 406, Monday, the Nama Hatta sweeper, assistant and flagbearer arrived in the town of Ghatal, Midnapur District, after dark. The devotees escorted the Nama Hatta employees with sankirtana to the Harisabha. More than a thousand devotees of the Nama assembled and engaged in massive sankirtana. The next day at sunrise, along with all the devotees of Ramjivanpur, they performed blissful kirtan and inspected the activities of the Nama Hatta in the prapannasrama of Sriyuta Kunja bihari paina.
The captivating lecture and personally composed Vaisnava songs filled the assembled devotees with prema. Travelling salesman Sriyuta Ramadasa Babaji and Sriyuta dharacandra Tarkalanar satisfied the assembly with sweet lectures. The assembly dispersed three hours after darkness had fallen with loud chanting of Hari and pure Nama sankirtana.
7th Aswin, at daybreak, street sankirtan went out with a great gathering of Ramjivanpur villagers. The special decorations and mandapas in front of the houses was a wonderful sight to see. Thereafter the sankirtana party went on the main road and from the houses the devotees in great devotion were chanting the name of Hari. At one mandapa the travelling salesmen and Bhaktivinod Thakur explained the glories and the truth of the Name, while from all four sides the village women-folk raised their voices in yoodling. In some places the school children, breaking loose from the teacher's care, crying Hari Bol, ran towards the sankirtana party. All of the devotees were feeling mutual bliss. The minds of everyone present was captured by this enchanting scene.
Sriyuta Srivascandra Adya, Sri Gangadhara Pal, Sri Radhanatna Das, Sri Madnavacandra Dey, Sri Umescandra Modak, Sri Trailokya Das, store-keeper Sri Jadunatha Pal and the best of the Brahmins Sriyuta Dinanath Ray, each had at their houses separate individual sankirtana meetings.
Later, at the village of Srinagar, in the Harisabha established by the Nama Hatta, Bhaktivinoda and the employees gained the affection of nearly two thousand assembled persons by their discourses. Sriyuta Hrdayanath Karmakar and other Nama Hatta Singers sang sweetly and dancers Sriyuta Sitanatha Hara and others danced to the kirtan and enchanted all those present.
9th Aswin, all the Nama Hatta workers gathered at Hatipur Devakhand, where nearly three thousand people assembled at the Natyasalaya of Jagajanani Bhadrakali. The travelling salesman of that place, Sriyuta Kesava candra Cakravarti had made many preparations with gates and mandapas. The villagers took the Nama Hatta workers with great enthusiasm from the bank of the river to a pandal. Along the way village women filled with ecstasy were yoodling. Those present will not forget the enchanting scene. At that time everyone lost consciousness, submerged in the ocean of Krsna prema. After all the devotees were properly seated in the mandap the following song was sung in the baul melody:
"Nitai nam hate, o ke jabire bhai, ay chute ese pasanda jagai madhai dujan sakal hater mal nile jute.
Hater amsi mahajon, Sri adwaita sanatan, bhandari sri Gadadhar pandit vicaksan.
Achen caukidar Haridas adi holen sri Sanjay sri Sridhar mate paricarak achen Krsna dasa prabhrti,
hon kosadhyaksa srivas pandit, jhadudar kedar jute.
Hater mulya nirupon, noy bhakti prakaron,
Prem heno mudra sarbasar, samyaman nai komi besi saman o jon re, sob ek mane bojhay uthe.
Ei premer uddes, ek sadhu upades
Sudhamoy harinam rup susandes ete boro nai re dvesadves, khay ek pate kanakuthe."
(14th and 16th Aswin are omitted)
On inspecting the Ghatal and Jahanabad groups, the Nama Hatta workers could see the tremendous advancement the work of the Nama Hatta had made in such a short time. It is well known that travelling salesmen do their jobs with great care. The supervisor Sriyuta Mukhopadhyaya Bhaktibhusan in particular has done especially noteworthy service in the Ghatal area. If employees such as he were to be found in every area, it would be a source of great joy. On visiting those areas we would derive the same bliss. Here we make one point: that each worker of the Nama Hatta should follow the below-mentioned points with great care.
2. At the time of Hari Nama bhajans and kirtans, we saw that many songs filled with conceptions of materialism, voidism and sense-enjoyment were being sung. This is not to be done in the Nama Hatta. It is only proper to sing songs composed by previous mahajans or acaryas, or the songs published by the Vaisnava Siddhanta Mala, of other Vaisnava songs following in those footsteps. Apart from this no others should be sung. I hope that those in charge of Nama Hatta operations in the areas concerned will keep a careful watch in this regard.
3. At many places it is seen that the workers of the Nama Hatta get special prasad from the devotees, by which their ability to taste transcendental mellow is being disturbed. This is not desirable. This does not mean that proper reception of guests is being forbidden.
boro sukher khabor gāi
surabhi-kuñjete nāmer hāṭ khule’che (khoda nitāi)
4. At many places there are many kinds of spontaneous song writers who accept the Sri Nama Hatta verses, but they are singing songs from their previous experience. Those songs are all against the principles of pure devotion. It is my desire that songs based on pure devotion and the pure Name be prepared. If the leader in each area can prepare songs with proper verse, melody and beat, we will print them in the Vaisnava Siddhanta Mala.
5. Those groups which do not discuss pure devotion and the pure Name, and simply engage in collecting money should not keep a close connection with the Nama Hatta organization. Otherwise the glories of the Nama Hatta will be finished.
(Signed Sri Ram Sevak Chattopadhyaya Bhaktibrnga,
Sri Kedarnath datta Bhaktivinod, sweeper,
and Sri Sitanath Das Mahapatra, flagbearer)
In the above of Sri Navadvip, at Surabhi Kunj, Godruma, the Nama Hatta sweeper, preachers and other workers have been busily engaged on the occasion of Niyama Seva (Kartik month) with special religious observances and various festivals of the Name. From the last 27th Aswin until the 30th of Kartik every day aroti, sankirtana, reading from the scriptures, lectures from the books, darsana of the deity of Mahaprabhu and street sankirtan have been the agenda.
Under the care of the mahanta of Godruma, Sriyuta Nila Madhava chakravarti, along with loud sankirtan the party travelled around Navadvip and visited various temples such as Praudha Maya, the listeners were submerged in pure chanting of the Name. Gauranga kirtan was performed in the courtyard of Mahaprabhu, where babies, elderly and children were all stunned and with rapt attention listened and expressed great satisfaction. With body trembling and their eyes filled with tears of love, they began showering sweets like a rain of flowers upon the singers. Many talented and intelligent pandits were also present, and none had heard such a rendering of the Name, which delighted the hearts of all living beings.
Commander-in-Chief and Patrolman
The patrolman works in the villages, while the area commander, the state commander, and the commander-in-chief destroy all the atheistic opinions with scripture and arguments based on scripture, and ultimately establish the glories of chanting the Holy Name.
Rules for the patrolman
1. Each patrolman, dressed in appropriate vaisnava apparel will patrol in his designated area doing kirtan with kartals. He will visit each day at least five householders and preach to them the message of Mahaprabhu.
2. He will remain at the householder's place only long enough to preach the order of Sri Chaitanya, and no longer.
3. He will sing the order of Mahaprabhu in a humble way.
4. No material reward should be asked or accepted from the householder.
5. If any householder resorts to any type of rude behaviour the patrolman should satisfy him with sweet words and attention. Under no circumstances should any anger or contempt be brought into the mind.
6. If any persons want to engage in a debate with the patrolman, the patrolman should inform the local commander.
7. The patrolman will keep with him a flag or banner of the Nama Hatta.
8. Those who are beggars and maintain themselves by chanting the Holy Name are disqualified from becoming patrolmen.
9. No one should desire to get any material reward for doing work for the Nama Hatta. One should depend for his maintenance on his private job. Flags, banners, and kartals should also be purchased by his own income. In this way by performing selfless service he will be able to satisfy the chief merchant, Sri Nityananda Prabhu.
Rules for the Commanders
2. The commanders will go from village to village and appoint patrolmen and teach them the formulas, and, if necessary, protect them by giving them instruction filled with bhakti.
Signed by the Sri Nama Hatta sweeper,
the fallen worthless servant,
Sri Kedarnath Bhaktivinod,
Surabhi Kunj, Godruma Dvipa,
Sri Navadvipa Dhama